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Additive categories.  Used to improve appearance, flavor, texture or food preservation. They are natural or artificial. An addendum can not be used unless it has been authorized by interministerial decree on the advice of the French Agency for Food Safety in conjunction with the Scientific Committee on Food at European level (Decree of 18-9-89). In Europe, some 250 additives are permitted (E 100 and E 957 and 1 200 to 1 518). Their membership, name or symbol, its class must be indicated clearly on prepackaged foods. Colorant: can be extracted from a natural organism (such as red annatto seeds), be produced by synthesizing a body similar to the natural coloring (riboflavin: yellow, present in milk), or be an artificial product synthesis (tartrazine yellow paper). 

Conservative. Antioxidant. Emulsifier:used for mixing water (or a product with an affinity for water) with a fatty (or a product with an affinity for fat), forming a thin film between the droplets of 2 products : natural (eg lecithin, which is "take" the mayonnaise is the egg or soy) or synthetic (glycerin monostearate, to make margarine). 

thickener. Gelling.Stabilizer. Flavor: The best known is sodium glutamate, an amino acid isolated in 1912. It exists in plant and animal tissues (yeast, wheat, milk is particularly rich).Glutamate, today prepared from wheat gluten or by fermentation of beet molasses is used in dried soups and canned, frozen foods or prepared sauces, etc..Acidifier. Acidity. Anticaking. Modified starch. Baking powder. Coating agent. Salt melt.

KEY ADDITIVES

Numbering EU letter E for Europe.

Dyes. E codes 100 to E 180 (29 allowed): Yellow: 100 Curcumin, 101 lactoflavin or riboflavin, 102 tartrazine, 104 quinoline yellow. Orange: 110 S. Red yellow orange 120 acid carmine or cochineal, 122 azorubine or Carmoisine , 123 amaranth 124 ponceau 4R, cochineal red A, 127 erythrosine, 128 red 2G, 129 Allura Red AC. Blue: 131 Patent Blue V, 132 indigo or indigo carmine, 133 Brilliant Blue FCF. Verde: 140 chlorophylls , 141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins, 142 acid brilliant green BS. Brown: 150 a plain caramel, caustic b sulfate, ammonium c, d with ammonium sulfate. Black: 151 Brilliant Black BN or PN, 153 charcoal medicinal, 154 Brown FK, Brown HT 155. Shades Miscellaneous: 160 mixed carotenoids, beta-carotene, b annatto, bixin, narbixine c paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin d lycopene, e-201Fb Apocarotenal-8 '(C30 ), 161 b lutein, canthaxanthin g, 162 red beet betanin, 163 anthocyanins, 170 calcium carbonate 171 Titanium dioxide, 172 oxide and iron hydroxide, 173 aluminum, 174 silver, 175 gold, 180 litholrubine BK .

Conservatives.   E codes 200 to E 290 (26 allowed): 200 sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, 202, 203 calcium, 210 benzoic acid, 211 sodium benzoate, 212 potassium, 213 calcium, 214 P-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) ethyl; 215 sodium derivative of ethyl acid PHB, PHB propyl 216, 217 sodium propyl acid PHB, PHB 218 methyl, 219 sodium derivative of methyl ester PHB, 220 sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfite, 221, 222 acid sodium metabisulfite sodium 223, 224 of potassium sulfite, calcium 226, 227 Calcium hydrogen; 228 potassium 230 biphenyl, diphenyl, 231 orthophenylphenol; 232 orthophenylphenate sodium, 233 thiabendazole, nisin 234; 235 Natamycin (pimaricin): 239 hexamethylenetetramine; 242 dimethyldicarbonate; 249 potassium nitrite, 250 sodium, 251 sodium nitrate, 252 potassium, 260 acetic acid, 261 acetate potassium acetate and 262 sodium diacetate, calcium acetate 263, 270 lactic acid, propionic 280, 281 sodium propionate, calcium 282, 283 potassium, 284 boric acid, 285 sodium tetraborate (borax) 290 carbon dioxide (propellant and packaging); 296 malic acid 1; 297 fumaric acid 1.

Note: (1) Acid / acidity rectifier.

Antioxidants.   Codes E 300 à E 321 (13 autorisés) : empêchent les corps gras de rancir (le rancissement se produit lorsque l'oxygène attaque les acides gras). Antioxydants naturels : acide ascorbique ou vitamine C (dans les fruits), vitamine C et E (dans les fruits), vitamine E (dans les huiles) ; 306 extraits d'origine naturelle riches en tocophérols ; de synthèse : BHA ou butylhydroxyanisol (dose maximale autorisée dans les purées en flocons : 25 mg/kg). Codes : 300 acide ascorbique ; 301 ascorbate de sodium, 302 de calcium ; 304 palmitate ou stéarate d'ascorbyle ; 306 extrait riche en tocophérols ; 307 alphatocophérol ; 308 gammatocophérol ; 309 deltatocophérol ; 310 gallate de propyle, 311 d'octyle, 312 de dodécyle ; 315 acide érythorbique ; 316 érythorbate de sodium ; 320 BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) ; 321 BHT (butylhydroxytoluène). Substances ayant entre autres une action antioxygène : 220 anhydride sulfureux ; 221 sulfite de sodium, 222 acide de sodium ; 223 disulfite de sodium, 224 de potassium ; 226 sulfite de calcium ; 322 lécithines. Substances pouvant renforcer l'action antioxygène d'une autre : 270 acide lactique ; 325 lactate de sodium, 326 de potassium, 327 de calcium ; 330 acide citrique ; 331 citrate de sodium, 332 de potassium, 333 de calcium ; 334 acide tartrique ; 335 tartrate de sodium, 336 de potassium, 337 double de sodium et de potassium ; 338 acide orthophosphorique ; 339 orthophosphate de sodium, 340 de potassium, 341 de calcium ; 472c ester citrique des mono- et diglycérides d'acides gras alimentaires.

Agents de texture.   E codes 322 to E 483 (32 allowed): 322 Lecithin 2, 339 sodium orthophosphate 1, 340 potassium 2; 341 Calcium 2, 350 malate (acid) 1 sodium, 351 potassium malate 1; 352 malate (acid) Calcium 1, 353 metatartaric acid 1, 354 calcium tartrate 1, 355 adipic acid 6; 356 adipate 2 sodium, 357 potassium 2; 363 succinic acid 1, 380 citrate triammonium 1; 385 ethylene diamine tetra-acetate Calcium disodium 3, 400, alginic acid 5, 401 sodium alginate 5, 402 of potassium 5;403 Ammonium 5; 404 Calcium 5, 405 propylene glycol 4; 406 agar 5; 407 carrageenan, carrageenan, carrageenan 4, 410 seed flour carob 5; 412 guar gum 4; 413 tragacanth 4; 414 arabic 4; 415 xanthan 4; 416 Karaya 2, 417 tara 2, 418 gellan 5; 420 sorbitol 7; 421 mannitol 7; 422 glycerol 8; 431 stearate polymethylene 2; 432 polysorbate 20 2; 433 polysorbate 80 2; 434 polysorbate 40 2; 435 polysorbate 60 2; 436 polysorbate 65 2, 440 pectin 5; 442 Ammonium phosphatides 2; 444 sucrose acetate isobutyrate 7; 445 Glycerol ester of wood rosin 2, 450 polyphosphates of sodium and potassium 8; 451 Pentapotassium triphosphate and Pentasodium8; 452 calcium polyphosphate, potassium and sodium, 460 microcrystalline cellulose 8; 461 methyl 4; 463 hydroxypropyl 4; 464 hydroxypropyl 4; 465 Ethyl 4; 466 carboxymethyl 4, 471 mono-and diglycerides of edible fatty acids 2, 472 esters 2 (a-acetic, lactic, b, c, citric, tartaric-d, etc..) ; 473 sucroesters 2, 474 sucroglycerides2; 475 polyglycerol esters of edible fatty acids Uncured 2; 476 polyricinoleate polyglycerol 2; 477 propylene glycol esters, fatty acids 2; 479b oxidized soybean oil reacted with mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids 2, 481-stearoyl 2-lactylate 2, 482 Calcium 2; 483 stearyl tartrate 2.

Note: (1) Acid. (2) Emulsifiers. (3) Stabilizer. (4) Thickening. (5) Gelling. (6) Flavor. (7) Sweetener. (8) Stabilizer.

Misc.   Intense Sweeteners: Acesulfame K E950, E951 aspartame, cyclamate E 952 (banned in the U.S. since 1970, which resulted in rats of cancer of the bladder).E 954 saccharin, thaumatin E 957, E 959 neohesperidin. Sweeteners Load (polyols): E 953 isomalt, lactitol E 966, E 965 maltitol, mannitol E421, E 420 sorbitol, xylitol E 967. Food flavor: E 620 glutamic acid and its salts E 622 to E 625, E 626 acid guanilique and derivative E 627 - E 629, E 630 and inosinic acid derivative E 631 - E 633..


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