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Dieting.   Reducing energy foods: sugars, fats, alcoholic beverages. Use of artificial sweeteners (sweetening power 100 to 1 000 times that of sucrose): saccharin(benzoic acid orthosulfamide) sold in pure form (Sucredulcor ) associated with cyclamate (Sucaryl) or a derivative of vanillin (ODA), heat stable, can be used in baking.Cyclamates: powder, tablets, liquids. Aspartame: powder, tablets (Canderel, Pouss -juice, D-Sucril). containing phenylalanine, can be consumed by people with phenylketonuria. Maintenance (essential) for other foods [meat, fish, eggs, bread and starchy foods (in moderation), dairy products, vegetables green fruits].Distribution of food in 4 or 5 meals. Prefer a scheme "Associate" (balanced diet) to a system "separated"

Caution: crackers (without water) do not lose weight, 100 g of crackers (or 7) contains: 362 calories, 100 grams of bread: 250 Kcal. For the same calories, some products are more bigger than others (mayonnaise over the potatoes or pasta). You must drink at least 1.5 liters of water per day. Remove the salt does not lose weight and can be harmful (lower blood pressure, onset of fatigue ). The wonder drugs do not exist, most are ineffective and dangerous (diuretics). Breakfast must be preserved and contain protein and calcium. To have the same energy value margarine and butter (oils are slightly more calories) .

Paraffin oil: its use is limited laxative effect, can decrease intestinal absorption of certain vitamins.

Plan exclusion.   Prohibit or decrease consumption of one or more food energy. Mayo: low-calorie type, based on protein-rich foods (eggs, meat, fish) and vegetables.Excludes sugary foods, starches, dairy and fats. Risk of deficiencies in vitamins and calcium. Scardale: similar, but with added fruit. Same deficiencies. Atkins: high protein and hyperlipidaemia. Virtual elimination of carbohydrates. Lack of fruits and vegetables leads to a deficiency in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Risk based muscle caused by lack of sugar.

Calorie diets.   Reduces energy intake, particularly fats and sugars fast, to force the body to dip into its reserves. The resumption of a normal diet should be gradual. Weight Watchers method: defines a number of food points and a quota of points to which you are entitled. Monitoring involves the association membership and weekly meetings.Régime meal replacements: replace 1 or 2 meals per day prepared by a few calories. Do not extend more than 2 to 3 weeks. Plan soup soup of fresh vegetables to eat the main meals. Like any low-calorie diet, weight regain is common.

Differentiated regimes.   Prohibit the association of various foods. Antoine exclusive consumption of one food per day, 1 week per month. Risks of fatigue and digestive disorders. Shelton prohibit certain combinations at the same meal (eg acid / starch, fat / protein). Risk of nutritional imbalance. Montignac: focuses on food choices based on their physico-chemical (carbohydrates are selected based on their glycemic index, lipids based on the quality of fatty acids). Carbohydrates and fats should not be involved. Little risk of deficiency, but return to a normal diet may lead to weight regain

Protein diet.   Based on the consumption of meals or beverages containing protein, to reduce calorie intake while preventing muscle wasting. Incompatible with sustained physical activity. The resumption of weight can be quickly should stop the diet.

Salt free diet.   Can be used for the treatment of certain diseases (renal or cardiac).

1o)  Moderate (500 mg to 1 g of sodium): removal of salt seasoning, excluding foods with added salt (meat and smoked and salted fish, meat, mustard, olives, pickles, preserves, bread, butter, salt, etc..).

2o)  Severe (less than 500 mg): suppression of additional foods naturally contain salt: milk, eggs, cheese, organ meats, shellfish, oilseeds, vegetables and some fruits, etc..

Dietary products and regime. Production and distribution are regulated by the Decree of 29-8-1991 (under EU Directive 89/398), supplemented by specific texts (eg orders of 11-3-1988 and 5-4 -1991). Foods containing sweeteners with reduced fat content. There are also dietary products with a guaranteed content (such as certain vitamins or certain essential amino acids) or, conversely, free of certain nutrients (such as gluten). The creation of new products is subject to the advice of AFSSA..

The manufacturers use the terms light or lighter (less sugar, fat, and therefore fewer calories).

Plan diseases. C s associated desancer. Skip (increased risk): alcohol (esophagus, larynx, liver), tobacco (lung), alcohol + tobacco (esophagus). Influence of the environment (liver, pancreas, bladder) food (pancreatic, colon, stomach, breast, prostate), environment + food, eg nitrosamines (liver).>

Heart (disease).Causes: overweight, obesity (too rich diet, physical inactivity) cholesterol in the blood is too high (excess fat and weight, smoking, alcohol), hypertension(excess salt, weight, diabetes , smoking, alcohol). Recommended: fruits, vegetables, starchy foods, fish, horse, chicken, rabbit, rice, yoghurt, cheese, lean meat, skimmed milk. Coming up: duck, brain, kidney, liver, anchovies, oil, lard, butter, bacon, nuts, sausage, pork, lamb, mutton, goose, seafood, smoked fish, egg yolks, pastries, cocoa, cream, whole milk, cheese.

Diabetes Fatty (heredity, weight). Cardiovascular risk. In general, do not exceed 150 to 180 g of about carbohydrates (carbohydrates) per day. Recommended:balanced diet, with a breakdown of carbohydrates, meat, fish, shellfish, eggs products, skimmed milk or 1 / 2 skim, green vegetables, tomatoes. Coming up: whole milk products, fats, carrots, peas, potatoes, pulses, fruit, bread, pasta, rice, pastries, sweets, chocolate , juice, soda, beer.

Liver and stomach (pain). Reduction or elimination of fatty cooked, fat cakes, sausages, eggs (sometimes), pulses, sauces, salad (sometimes), alcohol, coffee, etc..

Metabolic diseases . Genetic. Exclusion of a nutrient (gluten, galactose, fructose, phenylalanine); use of synthetic foods often necessary.

Risk of stroke mortality lower among fish eaters 2 times per week.

Food intake. In the hypothalamus (small area at the base of the brain), hormones, such as neuroleptide Y (NPY) or the melanocortin (MSH), are causing hunger.

BMI. Body mass index, defined by P / T 2, where P = Size (m). Obesity: BMI> 30; overweight: BMI between 25 and 30; lean: BMI <20

Digestion. Foods ingested are digested, which secretes the blood nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). High levels of glucose in the blood stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas.

Fat storage. Powered by elevated blood levels of insulin and lipids: gorged with fat, adipocytes secrete fatty tissue while a hormone, leptin [discovered in 1994, lowers in the hypothalamus, the rate of neuroleptide Y (NPY) and pupil of the melanocortin (MSH). The food intake stops].

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