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Overweight. Recommended: lean meat (horse, calf), fish, poultry, ham, vegetables, salads, yogurt, cheese, lean meat, fresh fruit, bread, starchy. Coming up: fat, salt, sugar.Not recommended: meat fat (mutton, lamb, duck, goose ...), sausage, fried food, pastries, fatty cheeses, whole milk, or sweetened alcoholic beverages, food like fast food.According to Dr. Gerard Apfeldorfer, Pt's Task Force on Obesity and overweight (BIG), you gain weight because energy intake (calories) exceeds expenditure. Eat less, less fat or less sweet enough so as the main system. But this approach does not take into account the chain of processes at work in the body. Eating less alter metabolism, ie d. the transformation process of matter and energy at work in the body. The postprandial expenditure (energy needed for digestion) and those related to maintenance of vital functions and regulation of body temperature decrease. The plans involve a loss of muscle mass, known as thin (approximately 25% of the total loss), which further minimize energy costs. The body then walk slowly, with less need to draw on its reserves. As we lose weight less rapidly as the regime continues. On stopping rules, the agency suddenly receives too many calories from the "economy mode" which is now hers. It will store what it can spend. And we regrossir. It is essential to maintain 3 meals per day structured. Skipping meals encourages snacking and obesity.

According to a study conducted at the Hospital of the Hotel-Dieu (Paris), subjects with massive obesity are those who have followed the more schemes have begun as early and lost the most weight . Hence the danger of restrictive diets and in particular protein diets. Chubs: children 5 to 12 years 16% (3% in 1965). Main causes: poor diet and physical inactivity. Afssa advises the morning snack at school, causing an excess of calories.

WHO (World Health Organization) recommends: choose foods that have undergone a treatment ensuring their safety (pasteurization, sterilization or canning, radiation ...). Many raw foods (poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk) may be contaminated with microbial flora important natural. All parts of the food must be cooked to at least 70 o C. Meat, poultry and fish to defrost before cooking. The consumed quickly after cooking. In cooked foods cool to room temperature, the bacteria proliferate. Cooked, keep them carefully. At high temperature (over 63 o C) or at low temperature (at 4 o C). At the center of a refrigerator too full, hot food does not cool fast enough and microbes can quickly reach dangerous levels. Although the heat at least 70 o C in all their points. Avoid contact between raw and cooked ( For example, to cut a roast chicken, do not use it without having washed the plate and the knife used to prepare). Store in tightly closed containers.

VEGETARIAN AND VEGAN

Vegetarian. Do not eat any animal flesh (meat, fish, meats, shellfish, seafood) but accept eggs and dairy products, avoid by-products from slaughter (gelatine, rennet, etc.)..Reasons: Diet: Risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers are reduced in vegetarians, as well as overall mortality, philosophical or ethical: Respect for animal life and non-violence (Gandhi, Tolstoy, Lanza del Vasto, Albert Schweitzer); refusal of murder animal or its abuse, economic or ecological devoted to the cultivation of cereals, legumes, vegetables, etc.., land farming could feed proportionally more people it takes 100 000 liters of water to produce 1 kg Beef and 2 000 for 1 kg of soybeans. Regimes: associated with various schools: hygienism, harmony, etc. macrobiotics. meal type: various vegetables, legumes, vegetables or dishes, cereals, cheeses, fruit, and often complete natural.

Vegan. Reject meat, fish and all animal by-products (milk, dairy products, eggs, honey). Plan calling for a greater variety food (nuts, seeds, soy, etc..) And a vitamin B12 supplement for pregnant and lactating women.

SPECIAL SCHOOLS

60/20/20 Life Form and Action. By weight: 60% vegetables and fruits raw and cooked, 20% of proteins (including oleaginous fruits, eggs and cheese), 20% carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids are content in the foods themselves.

Cerealien or macrobiotic (long life regime, the Greek makros, large, and bios, life). Consume a lot of cereals, pulses, some vegetables, almost no fruit (except nuts) [school Ohsawa, theory of yin and yang , balance between positive and negative energies, between basic and acidic substances]. Plan contest.

Crudivoristes. To eat raw food equivalent: fruits, vegetables, cheeses, eggs. Many cons-indications. Anopsology: Food original, pure thought, by taking appetite.

Frugivorous. Live only fruit. This scheme can only be transitory.

Estimates of the number of vegetarians in 2003: 800 million worldwide, India 15 to 20% of the population; GB 9; USA 4, France 1 to 2.

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