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National Society of Horticulture France (SNHF). 84, rue de Grenelle, 75007 Paris. Origin: 11-6-1827: Sté Horticultural Paris. Sté Created by the Royal and Central Agriculture. Pt 1:te Hericart Thury (1776-1854) elected 6-7-1827. 1837: Sté Royal Horticultural France. 11-8-1855: state-approved. 1885: SNHF. 18 sections: trees and shrubs ornamental, floral art, garden art, fine arts, bonsai, camellias, dahlias, flowers, fuchsias, ornamental gardens, fruit orchards, Pelargoniums and geraniums, plants and garden interior, succulents, perennials , rhododendrons and heather, pink (the oldest: 1850). Library: 7 200 French and foreign works of the sixteenth century until today, 500 collections of old periodicals, 170 current, 1 000 slides, 40 000 references. Review: "Garden of France" (monthly, 8 800 subscribers in 2003). Budget: 915 000 1 220 000 € / year . Pt Henri Delbard (since 2003).Members (2003): 2 406 direct members, member associations 220.

Courses for horticulture enthusiasts. School of Horticulture du Breuil, Bois de Vincennes, route de la Ferme, 75012 Paris. School of Horticulture Garden of Luxembourg, 64, bd St-Michel, 75006 Paris. SNHF. Ecole Nationale Superieure Landscape (NPHS), 4 rue Hardy, BP 914, 78009 Versailles Cedex.

Various agencies. French Association of bonsai enthusiasts (Afab), 8 rue Lakanal, 92330 Sceaux. Parks Association of Botanical France (APBF), 15 bis, rue de Marignan, 75008 Paris. Conservatoire National Chrysanthemum Paul Lemaire, Town Hall, 45,800 St-Jean-de-Braye. Created 2-7-1990 with Paulette Lemaire (daughter of Paul Lemaire).Pt: Denis Bernard. People: 34. Publication: Letter to members (trim.). 300 varieties of chrysanthemums. French League of the corner of land and home (National Federation of gardens), 11-17, rue Desprez, 75011 Paris. Founded in 1896, state-approved 1909. Sté lovers of alpine gardens, 43 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris. Sté French of dahlia (SFD), 6, rue du Carpiquet, 50250 La Haye-du-Puits; World dahlia in September in Coutances (Manche). Sté French iris bulbs and plants, 19 rue du Dr Kurzenne, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas. Sté French Orchid, 17, quai de la Seine, 75019 Paris. Created 22-12-1969, approved 22-10-1985. Pt: Alain Souys. People: 1 600. Publication: "The Orchidophie. Sté French roses(Review:" The Friends of roses "), Parc de la Tete d'Or, 69459 Lyon Cedex 06.

National Council of Cities and villages in bloom (CNVVF). 3, square Desaix, 75015 Paris. Origin: 1959: Robert Buron, Minister of Transport, Public Works and Tourism, is launching "Operation flourish France" under the res International Flower Show in Paris (at the CNIT La Défense). 1972: Marcel Anthonioz, Secretary of State for Tourism, creates the CNFF (National Committee for the flowering of France). 2001: becomes CNVVF. Commons included: 1959: 600; 72: 5 300; 2002: 12 000 with 2 165 labeled (label: 1, 2, 3 or 4 flowers), ranked 4 Flowers 161 (173 in 2003).

Flowers: International events benefiting long-term label IAPH (International Association of Horticultural Producers, established in 1948). Origin: celebration in honor of the goddess Flora in Rome (238 BC).. 1809-Feb .: 1st International Exhibition in Ghent (Belgium), organized by the Royal Sté agriculture and botany (created 10-10-1808); term "Flowers" adopted in 1873. France: 1924: 1 res flower show in Valenciennes, then 1926, 1930, 1934, 1954 (Vis. 1 million), 1962. Nantes: Parc Floral de la Beaujoire (every 5 years; screws.:over 600 000 in 1989). Orléans: May-October 1967 Park floral source. Paris: 1959: Palais du CNIT La Defense, then 1963, 1969: Parc Floral de Vincennes. Belgium: Gent (every 5 years since 1839, coming in 2005), Liège (all 5 years), Charleroi (every 5 years). P. Low: "Floriade" (every 10 years, Amsterdam). Germany: International Gartenbau Austellung (IGA) from May to October, in a different city every 4 or 5 years (Vis.: over 1 million). Austria: "The Wig" (Vienna, 2 flower shows between 1970 and 1980). Canada: Montreal (every 10 years).


SYMBOLS AND ORIGINS OF SOME PLANTS

SYMBOLS

Acacia: pure love, platonic love. Yarrow: War deserves hidden healing. Adonis tender pain. Amarante: fidelity, constancy. Amaryllis: pride and fickleness. Ancolie: madness.Anemone: abandonment of fields: health. Anis: promise. Anthémis: presumption. Argentina: simplicity, simplicity. Aristolochia: tyranny. flycatchers Arum: trap. Asphodel: lost love. Aster: love confident. Hawthorn: hope. "Azalea: Love shy. Balsamine: ardor, impatience. Basil: Hatred. begonia: warmth. Belle-de-jour: coquetry. Belle-of-night: love shy.Blueberry: delicacy. Ball-of-snow: cold love. Borage: firmness, energy. Buttercup: mockery . Bruyere solitary reverie. Anchusa: lie. Buis: stoicism and determination. Camellia:constancy. Chamomile: Energy in adversity. Campanula rotundifolia: submission. Capucine: flame of love. Celosia: fidelity and constancy, and immortality. Knapweed:message of love, happiness. Honeysuckle: bonds of love. Quackgrass: perseverance. Chrysanthemum: love. Hemlock: treachery, betrayal. Clematis: attachment. Cobaea: nodes.Colchicum: jealousy. Coquelicot: ardor fragile. Trash-d money: indifference. Trash-d'Or: tranquility. Coucou: delay. Crocus: joy, joy juvenile. Cyclamen: enduring feelings.Cypress: Mourning. Cytise: concealment. Dahlia: recognition sterile novelty. Delphinium: charity or lightness. Dentelaire of China: caustic. Digitalis purpurea: work and absence. Doronic Caucasian greatness. Eglantine: fleeting happiness. Buckthorn: barriers. Spurge: Concern. Fougère: sincerity. Fraisier: drunken delight. Fritillary:Homemaking, power. Fuchsia: kindness. Fumeterre: bitterness, envy. Charcoal: constant remembrance. Gardenia: sincerity. Genet: preference. Juniper: helping asylum.Gentian: scorn, disdain. Geranium: feelings of love. "Wallflower: Fidelity in misfortune; Quarantine: elegance, compassion. Gladiola: challenge indifference. Glycine:tenderness. Grenadier: union of two hearts. Marshmallow: charity. Hellebore: Scandal. HELENA tears. Heliotrope: eternal love, crazy love. Hortensia: coldness. Hops: Rage .Houx: insensitivity. If: affliction. Immortelle: constancy yellow memory. impatience: impatience. Iris: message. Jacinta: grace and gentleness, Thu Jasmin sympathy voluptuous.Jonquil: desire. Houseleek: mind. Laurier (branch) : glory, victory crown reward; laurel sauce: seduction, sincerity. Oleander: seduction. Lavender: silence. Lier: affection, friendship strong. Lilas: budding love; white youth. Lin: blessing. Lis white: purity and majesty; red alarm. Bindweed weakness, humility. Marguerite greatness and faithfulness.Purple: sincerity. Menthe: memory. Millefeuille: oblivion cure. Millepertuis: delay. Mimosa: safety. Monnaie-du-pape : forgetfulness. Morelle-Cerisette: beauty without goodness. Pimpernel: appointment. Snapdragon: Presumption. Lily of the Valley: Happiness. Myosotis: "Do not forget me." Myrtle: Love. Narcisse: vanity, selfishness.Nasturtium: patriotism . Waterlily: coldness; White eloquence. Nielle: sympathy. Noyer: fervor. Carnation: true love, caprice white fidelity of poet finesse; Yellow: disdain requirement; florists: love sincere cuteness: childishness musk : Remember fugitive Variegated: under inflexible culvert: fear, terror; pink: love bright and pure. Olivier (branch):peace. Oranger: virginity and generosity. Orchid: fervor. auricula: love change. Daisy : shared affection. Pavot: oblivion white sleep of heart; poppy: ephemeral beauty. Fishing:happiness to love. Thought: Remember to love, think of me. Snowdrops: test. Periwinkle: Friendship steadfast, sure, sweet memory. Petunia: obstacle. Phlox: unanimously.Larkspur : open heart. peony: confusion. Sweet Pea Perennial: delicacy. Primevère: tender affection and sincere youth. Queen daisy variety. Buttercup: attractions and danger.Reseda "your qualities equals your charms." Rhododendron: elegance. Rosemary: remembrance, "Your presence gives me life." Rose: love and beauty; white: silence, white and red beauty ardent nasturtium: brightness, caprice hundred sheets: grace, pleasure, the four seasons: Beauty ever new; Bengal: convenience, foreign beauty; in bud: girl withered:beauty withered, yellow infidelity mossy: voluptuous ecstasy; Musk: Beauty capricious pompom: kindness; simple: simplicity. Hollyhock: fertility. Sage : consideration, respect.Scabiosa: uncertainty or grief, flower widows. Sensitive: modesty, sensitivity. Seringa: brotherly love. Perennial Sun: false wealth. Souci: gnawing worry, jealousy. Sureau:caution. Thyme, thyme: emotion. Linden: conjugal love. Clover: Uncertainty, quadrifolia: promise of fame, wealth, love and health. privet: defense. Tuberose: pleasure. Tulipe:grandeur, magnificence yellow desperate love, red: declaration of love. Valerian : ease, comfort. Veronique: loyalty, confession, offering a heart. Verbena: Enchantment, under wives, pure feeling. White Violet: modesty, candor, innocence twofold: mutual friendship; fragrant: modesty; bouquet with leaves : secret love. Viorne: cooling, slander. Volubilis:commitment, dedication. Zinnia: inconstancy.

NAME ORIGIN?

Adansonia: baobab which the French botanist Adanson (1727-1806), botanist named king in 1771, had devoted a monograph.

Begonia: Michel Begon (1638-1710), French governor of Santo Domingo from 1682 to 1684. Name given by Father Charles Plumier (1646-1706), who brought the flower of America. Formalized by Linnaeus in 1753. Belladonna: "Beautiful Lady" (juice of the berries used as paint to "see the light"). Atropa belladonna in Latin: Atropos, one of the 3 Greek goddesses of fate is that of Death (berries , poisonous, we extract that atropine dilates the pupils and accelerated heart rate). Bignonia: Jean-Paul Bignon (1662-1743), preacher and librarian of the king in 1718, Academician. Given by Joseph Tournefort in 1694. Reprinted by Linnaeus 1753. Bougainvillea: from Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), diplomat, sailor, author of travel around the world (1771), Count of the Empire. Donated by Philibert Commerson (1727-73). Confirmed by Jussieu.

Camellia: Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706), said Camellus, Moravian Jesuit botanist. Donated by Carl von Linné (1707-78). First "Camellia", spelled "Camellia" by Alexandre Dumas son into the Lady of the Camellias (1848). Lautour-Mezeray, nicknamed "The Man with the camellia, launched the fashion of camellia in his buttonhole. Capucine: capuchin(" small cap ") because of the shape of its flower. COBEA: Barnaby Cobo (Lopera, Spain 1582), Jesuit missionary in Mexico and Peru. Donated by Cavanilles, director of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid. Colchicum: the land of Medea, daughter of the King of Colchis (Legend of the Golden Fleece).

Dahlia: Andreas Dahl (Sweden, 1751-89), pupil of Linnaeus. Given by Father Antonio José Cavanilles (Spanish) at the plant received in 1789 from Mexico (where she was namedAcotoli or Chichipalti). Even the name given by Thunberg to another plant in 1792 (not applicable under the law of priority in nomenclature) . st planted in France: 1802, Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 1 Garden Dahlias in France: 1929 Domaine du Mignon, Biarritz. Davidia: dedicated to Father Armand David (1826-1900), discoverer of plants, China.

Eschscholtzia: Dedicated to Johan Friedrich Eschscholtz (1783-1831), botanist, traveler and collector Russian. Spurge: Euphorbus of physician of Juba I, King of Numidia (firstcentury BC)..

Forsythia: G. Forsyth (GB, 1737-1804), superintendent of royal gardens. Donated by Mr. Vahl (1805). Fuchsia: Leonard Fuchs (Germany, 1501-66), botanist. Given by Plumier in 1693. Reprinted by Linnaeus in 1735 and 1753.

Gardenia: Alexander Garden (Scotland, 1728-91), physician, botanist. Given by J. Ellis (1761).

Hydrangea: hortorum of flos (flower gardens). Donated by Philibert Commerson (1727-73), in tribute to Hortense de Nassau (?), Who first called Lepautia caelestina in memory of Nicole Queen Lepaute, mathematician († 1788). Formalized by Jussieu in 1789. Botanical name: Hydrangea (Greek hudor, water, and aggeion, vase), fruit-shaped cup given by Gronovius, taken by Linnaeus in 1737 and 1753.

Incarvillée: Dedicated to the father of Incarville, a Jesuit of the eighteenth century botanised that Quebec and China.

Magnolia: Pierre Magnol (Montpellier, 1638-1715), professor of botany. Donated by Plumier (1703), taken by Linnaeus in 1735 and 1753.

Paulownia: Anna Pavlovna, daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia, given by Sieber and Zuccarini 1835. Petunia: alluding to pétun, Indian term (Brazil) for tobacco.

Rafflesia Arnoldi: discovered by Sir Thomas Raffles (1781-1826), statesman and English explorer, and Joseph Arnold, a naturalist and former surgeon of the British Navy, May 20, 1818 in Sumatra (see also p. 238 a). Robinia name dedicated to Jean (1550-1629) and Vespasian Robin († 1662), King's gardeners. Given by Linnaeus in 1735.

Zinnia: Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727-59), German botanist. Given by Linnaeus in 1759.

Garden Calendar

And gardening advice. Information sheets: maintenance, planting, planting, pruning, flowers and vegetables. Timetable.

www.gerbeaud.com / garden

Edenplanet

And garden decoration. Guides visit gardens, castles and palaces, holiday plants. Catalog plants, trees and flowers, personalized recommendations, fact sheets, directory.

www.edenplanet.com

L'Ami des Jardins

Website of the monthly magazine. Information sheets gardening, landscaping and maintenance, the garden calendar. Shop online sales.

www.amidesjardins.com

The Potager

Practical gardening calendars planting / harvest, an ephemeris by month and season for planting. Green manure, vegetables, orchards, tips and tricks.

lepotager.free.fr

My Bonsai

Cultivation of bonsai. To help new bonsaïstes to choose their first bonsai and learn to maintain it. Origin, forms and styles, photos.

www.monbonsai.com

Plants and Gardens

Website sales and tips on gardening. Catalog, plants (thematic research, fact sheet, online purchase). Magazine: topical gardening, flash parasitology, gardening with the moon, fact sheets, glossary, calendar work, the kitchen garden, rides, calendar events, files, forums.

www.plantes-and-jardins.com

Realgarden

Community portal 'style of contemporary urban life'. Journal (new green), a community of the blue planet. Special garden tips, fact sheets on plant emissions, calendar, dictionary.Realgarden TV gardening programs, The Fifth. Directory of sites.

www.realgarden.fr

Webjardinier

Site information and sales dedicated to gardening. Almanac by department, leaflets, Answers, tips, glossary, legal issues, ideas for gardens, children's area. Store magazine.

www.webjardinier.com

Garden Signs

Botanic

Presentation of the Botanic sign, store locator, recruiting space. Request a catalog mail order paper. Weekly gardening tips, photo archive, presentation of gardens, press review.Section gardening school. Calendar. Forums. 250 detailed files on plants, records, glossary, diseases and parasites.

www.botanic.com

Spirit Garden

Sale and online services for amateur and professional garden. Catalog. Hot, vegetables, discovery gardens, urban gardens Flowers 4.

www.espritjardin.fr

Jardiland

Specialist animal, plants, flowers, advice and services on gardening. Tips (plants, animals), garden plans. Store Locator visit. History, facts and figures of the sign. FAQ Service.

www.jardiland.fr

Truffaut

Specialist garden and pet. Promotions, news magazines, leaflets download (animals, decorations, creative hobbies, gardening). Space recruitment.

www.truffaut.com


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