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Do not read while eating or watching television: the secretion of digestive juices is stimulated by sight, smell, touch food. These stimuli induce the secretion of saliva and gastric juice.Many digestion difficult and dyspeptic disorders are due to the lack of attention paid to food.

Offal (see Meat, p. 41 b).

Acrylamide. Used in wastewater treatment plants to treat water. May be carcinogenic. Foods with starch are in full when worn long high temperature. A packet of chips contains more than 500 times the permitted level of acrylamide in water.

Alcohol. It does not heat, but causes dilation of peripheral vessels (which gives an illusory sensation of warming), encouraging heat loss and disrupting the natural mechanisms of protection against the cold. It does not help the muscular effort . It helps to increase caloric intake and, taken in excess, promotes weight gain. See Alcoholism in the Index.

Smoked foods. The smoke contains benzopyrene, a carcinogen. Avoid eating the burnt food and cooked (eg BBQ).

Butter. Useful for children and adolescents (vitamin A for growth and D antirachitic). Resents the high temperatures. Several categories: farm butter, dairy (milk or pasteurized) semi-sweet or salt, Charentes-Poitou/Isigny (AOC), Christmas (pasteurized frozen), half-salt, low fat (62% or 41% fat instead of 82%).

Beer. Approximately 440 kcal per liter; rich in carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins B

Biscuits. Most are made from white flour (4 to 5 times less rich in fiber than wholemeal flour). Contain: hydrogenated fats, 30 to 70 grams of white sugar per 100g, increasing the body needs vitamin B1.

Fruit drinks. Juice: As of 12.7.2004 (European Directive 2001/112/EC), only 2 names will be used: "juice" and "fruit juice from concentrate." Nectar: juice or puree fruit mixed with water and sugar. Drink the juice of fruit or sparkling water, 10% fruit juice, sugar, extracts or natural fruit flavors, acidulants. dehydrated juice: used to produce a dilution instant drink.

Soft drinks (sodas and derivatives). Usually contain sugar, citric acid, benzoic acid, tartaric acid, dyes and other additives. Low nutritional value, but provide calories. Coca-Cola:carbonated water, sugar (or sweetener in Coca-Cola Light), caramel, phosphoric acid, vegetable extracts, caffeine (available without caffeine), 1 bottle of 33 cl contains about 35 mg of caffeine (cup of tea 30 to 50, coffee 60 to 120) and the equivalent of 7 pieces of sugar. Tonics and bitter species contain bitter orange and quinine (Schweppes: 78 g sugar and 80 mg quinine / l). Lemonade and soft drinks are high in sugar and carbon dioxide (examples: Seven Up: 81 g sugar, 66 mg sodium / L. Gini: 112 g sugar and 30 mg of quinine / l) .

Coffee and tea. Exciting. An adult can consume up to 4 cups per day. Coffee: 1 cup (6 to 10 cl) of arabica coffee contains 50 to 100 mg of caffeine; robusta 120 to 150 mg ofDecaffeinated, 1 to 2 mg. Tea : rich in tannin (property constipating) and fluoride, contains caffeine, purine base identical to caffeine. Tea black tea, some components are modified or destroyed by fermentation. Green Tea: According to Chinese tradition, it would alter the rate cholesterol, protect the cardiovascular and liver disorders, improve digestion, accelerate the elimination of alcohol and prevent tooth decay. content of 1 cup of caffeine (in mg): 80 English tea, American 35 . Cafestol and kahweol: coffee components eliminated by the filter in instant coffee, present in brewed coffee (eg Turkish coffee).

Calories (see box p. 41 a and b). Foods containing the least: 8 raw endive, cucumber 11, lettuce 12 Zucchini 13, cabbage 14, radishes and turnips 15.

Delicatessen (see Meat, p. 41 b).

Chocolate. Composition (per 100g): 64 g carbohydrate, 22 g fat, 6 g. protein Very rich in mineral salts (4 g, phosphorus and magnesium in particular). Tonic with theobromine and caffeine. Its rich in fat can make it indigestible. Only dark chocolate conveys its antioxidants, because the addition of milk provides proteins that bind flavonoids and prevent them from passing into the blood.

Cholesterol. Indispensable: All cellular membranes contain. A rate too high in the blood leads to blockage of the arteries (atherosclerosis), with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Excessive consumption of saturated fats in particular contribute to increased serum cholesterol (blood cholesterol). Cholesterol provided by food (egg yolk, milk products, organ meats, mussels, etc..) Accounts for a small share. The 3 / 4 are synthesized by the liver. A drastic reduction in dietary cholesterol results in a decrease of 10 to 15% of cholesterol.

Confectionery & Food "recreational." Accelerate Aging by putting an additional burden on the mitochondria responsible for burning the food in contact with oxygen to provide energy.The increase of blood sugar is the cause of phenomena of glycation, in which sugars and proteins are composed of rigid, insoluble are causing wrinkles and alter organ (eg renal ). The excess can also lead to elevated blood triglycerides, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. According to Dr. William Major (Naza Research Center, Hampton, Va.), 150 000 Annual cardiac death are directly related to consumption sugar in the U.S.

Crudités. Few calories, rich in provitamin A and vitamin C and fiber, which facilitates intestinal transit. Also contains mineral salts (calcium and potassium).

Water. From Tap: contains minerals whose levels vary by region (check with town halls). Mineral: slightly mineralized, can be consumed regularly (Evian, Vittel great source, Volvic, etc..) Rich in minerals ( Contrexéville, Hépar Vittel, San Yorre, etc..) medical advice. Conservancy bottle once open 48 hours, if you drink from the bottle 24 h (multiplication of bacteria from the mouth.) Contained in food (in %): 90 vegetables, 90 fruits, egg white 87, milk 87 cheese 80, potato 79, whole egg 75, meat and fish approx. 70, egg yolk 50, cheese 50 soft, 35 hard cheese, bread 34, nuts 20, butter, margarine 16 cereals, 12 pulses, dehydrated vegetables 8.

FStarches. Rich in carbohydrates, vegetable protein, vitamins.

Fibers. According to their origin, can absorb water, increasing stool volume, regulate the bowel, helping to lower cholesterol, reduce the amount of glucose in the blood would help eliminate some carcinogens, provide an environment supports the development of certain bacteria in the colon. recommended daily ration: 30 to 40 g dietary fiber, 30 g of the [3 tablespoons solid or 10 slices of bran bread (3 grams per slice) or 200 g of bread complete (12 to 15 slices)]. Consumption generally insufficient.

Content of total dietary fiber content (g per 100 g food): Wheat: its 47.5; germ 16.6, wholemeal 13.5, wind 8.7, White 3.5, wholemeal bread 8.5 , a 5.1, white 2.7. Rice: Complete 9.1; white 3. Oats: flakes: 7.2. Legumes: White Beans 25.5; chickpeas 15; lens 11.7; peas 6 3. Vegetables: carrots 3.7, potatoes 3.5; kale 3.4, lettuce 1.5, tomatoes 1.4. Fruits: Almond 14.3, nuts 5.2, 3.4 bananas, pears 2.4; strawberries 2.1, apple 1.4.

Intestinal flora. Some bacteria promote transit (such as bifidus). More than 300 species. Flora barrier prevents the installation of pathogenic strains.

Cheese. Categories: see the Index. The less fat: Brie, Coulommiers, Camembert. The more fat (but also the richest in calcium): Gruyere, Comté, Emmental, Cantal, St-Paulin. 2004: fat content of cheese and other dairy products as a percentage of the entire product, not only on the dry matter.

Fruits. Strong content: cellulose, which ensures a better transit of food through the body, vitamins (especially vitamin C), minerals (particularly potassium, essential for the proper functioning of muscles, so the heart). Wash or peel the fruit to remove the maximum residues of pesticides and other chemicals, at least 2 or 3 fruits per day. Pineapples, lemons, papayas facilitate digestion.

Gelatin. Made from waste bone and skin of healthy animals recovered in slaughterhouses and butcher shops. Industrial use: sweets, meats, capsules for pharmaceutical capsules ...

Fats. To eat less: avoid butter and margarine on the table, fatty meat. Reducing Dressing by cutting the salad oil with water or cottage cheese or yogurt 0% fat, limit fried foods (1 to 2 per week, 1 serving of fries brings 25 to 30 g of fat). Percentage of fat: butter, raw, extra-end or end 82; concentrated 99.8; Kitchen 96; lightened 60-62; half butter 41; margarine: 80; Lean 60-62; half or margarine light margarine 39-41; all oils 100; cream 30% and 12% lighter.

Oils. For frying and seasoning. Vegetable oils consist mainly of triglycerides: 1 molecule of alcohol (glycerol) linked to 3 fatty acids. Are saturated (can not get hydrogen, ex.: Peanuts) or monounsaturated (hydrogen can receive 1, ex.: Olive oil) or polyunsaturated (may take several hydrogens, ex.: Sunflower, corn, rapeseed, soybean) . 2 types according to their chemical structure: linoleic acid omega-6 (sunflower, corn) and alpha-linolenic acid, omega-3 (canola, nuts, soy). The AFSSA recommended a ratio of 5 (linoleic) to 1 (alpha-linolenic acid) instead of 14 to 1 as at present. Olive: rich in monounsaturated E, no treatment has been refined. Monounsaturated fats to protect infarction. Sunflower, rapeseed, walnut, grapeseed and soyacan not withstand high temperatures (above 180 o). Peanuts: suitable for frying, fairly rich in vitamin E. Rape: No current varieties' have more erucic acid (toxic). Olestra: fat synthesis without calories, use in cooking, created by Procter & Gamble, authorized the U.S.; can cause abdominal cramps, loss of stool and prevent the absorption of vitamins. Renew frequent baths frying and filtering to prevent the formation of acrolein (a carcinogen).

Ham. Superior: no polyphosphates, humidity up to 75%, sugar 0.5%. Choices: phosphates up to 0.2% moisture to 75% to 2% sugar. Cooked: phosphate 0.3% maximum moisture up to 3%. superfine: the prepackaged ham higher.

Milk. Child: source of protein, vitamins and calcium for growth. Adult: 1 / 2 liter per day covers its calcium needs; well digested by the Europeans in Africa and Asia, adults digest the less because they have more lactase (enzyme). After opening the package, the milk must be consumed: in 3 days after the date of sale (sterilized or UHT) or 24 h (pasteurized). 1 / 2 cow's milk provides as much protein as a small steak or 2 large eggs. A bowl of whole milk covers 10 to 15% of daily recommended intake of vitamin A. Rates of fat (in%). Integer: 3 , 6, 1 / 2 skim:1.6. For some intolerance to lactose (milk sugar), replace the milk with yogurt.

Vegetables. Fresh and cooked: cooking results in a decrease in vitamins (especially vitamin C). Secs: energy, rich in proteins, minerals and B vitamins, fiber wealth is often less well tolerated than fruits and vegetables. A prolonged cooking easier digestibility. Soak the dried vegetables long before cooking.

Mustard (etymology: hot wort). May contain dyes, and contains tartaric acid, citric acid, alkali hydrogen sulphites, sulfur dioxide. In moderate amounts, can stimulate gastric secretions. In excess, can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa. Manufacture: Dijon (XIII century), Bordeaux and Orleans. "Violet" (with grape must): Brive (from the fourteenth century), Meaux.

Eggs. Protein quality. Contain the essential amino acids in ideal proportion. Cooked in fat too heated, can be difficult to digest. Specific allergy. Categories: A for sale (extra fees are less than 7 d, fresh 7 days to 3 weeks), B and C for industrial use. Weight: 30 to 80 g, average 60 g. Composition (in% without the shell): 73 water, 13 protein, 12 fat, minerals 1 sugar 1.

Pain. Common properties of grain derivatives. 350 g per day to provide an adult 1 / 3 of its protein requirements. Wholemeal bread: more rich in minerals and fiber, made with wholemeal flour. Bran Bread: from a mixture of flour and its wheat. Rye bread: contains at least 65% rye flour. Rye bread: - 65%.

Loaf French tradition: no additives or freezing treatment; Current French: may contain 14 (including ascorbic acid which promotes the bubbles, and an emulsifier); prepackaged: 14 + fat additives and preservatives.

Pasta and semolina. Made with durum wheat flour and after cooking, low in vitamin B. To 100 grams of pulp: carbohydrates 63 to 76 g, protein 11 to 16 g, fat 1 to 2 g, water 12 14 g, minerals 0.6 to 1.1 g, 360 calories.

Parsley, chervil. Rich in vitamin C, calcium, potassium.

Fish. Rich in protein and vitamins. The fish fat contains vitamins A and D. Lean: anchovies, bar, bream, pike, cod, carp, flounder, hake (whiting), gray and pink sea bream, haddock, roach, gurnard, pollack and black, dab - sole, mullet, perch, plaice, skate, rockfish, dogfish, dogfish, perch, sole, peat, trout, turbot. Semi-bold: shad, anglerfish (monkfish), carp breeding, conger, turbot, garfish, mullet. Bold: Eel, herring, mackerel, salmon, tuna. Rich in alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3), meant to protect the cardio-vascular diseases.

Since 1.7.2003, twenty species of fish can be sold in cans under the name "sardines" (sprat, herring, anchovies ...).

Depuis le 1.7.2003, une vingtaine d'espèces de poissons pourront être vendus en conserves sous l'appellation « sardines » (sprats, harengs, anchois...).

Apples. 100 g of apples with the skin have an antioxidant activity to that of = 1 500 mg of vitamin C.

Potatoes. Rich in starch and potassium, providing protein, fiber and vitamin C.

Licorice. Deprecated in hypertension.

Rice.'s Parboiled rice is richer in vitamins B1 and B2 as polished rice, but less rich than the rice.

Salt. Physiological Needs: 2 g / day about sodium chloride. Average amount ingested (in France): Women, 7 g / d, men 9 g / d (most significant contributions in cases of sustained physical effort), natriuresis (analysis of urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h) to measure the ingesta sodes. Heart and kidneys regulate salt intake between 4 and 16 g. The French ingest an average of 4 kg of salt per year, nearly 2 times the dose set by WHO. Main sources: salt naturally present in foods (1 2 g / d), salt volatile industrial preparations (3-4 g / d), salt added in cooking or at the table (2-3 g / d). Abuse: may cause hypertension in individuals predisposed . From the results of some intervention studies, it has been calculated that over-consumption of salt may cause in France about 75 000 cardiovascular accidents, including 25 000 deaths. The craft and industrial production contributed nearly 60% of ingesta sodes. The AFSSA recommended better information on the quantities of salt in food and a gradual decline from 20% in 5 years in the major food contributors of salt.

Average consumption of salt in 1 day (g): Breakfast: 1.1 with 30 cereal + milk 0.7, pain au chocolat 0.4. Lunch: 1.5 which share quiche salad + 0.7, beef 0.25 simmered vegetables 0.2, pastry 0.2, white bread 1.15. Aperitif: 1 with black olives 0.9, alcohol 0.1. Dinner: 9.14 with soup prepared 8, 1 / 3 rod 0.9, roquefort 0.24. Foods responsible for the excess salt bread (25 and 30% of daily intake), meat (12%), cheese (11%), soup (9-10%).

Sodium content of foods (mg/100 g) + 100 mg preserved (all), sausage, ham, offal, seafood, shellfish, egg white, cheese, sausages, salami 960, chips 990, bacon 1 020, frankfurters 1 080, smoked ham 1 100, aperitif biscuits 1 100 pasteurized cheese 1 430, 1 600 Parmesan, corned beef 1 700 Caviar 2 200, 2 shrimp box 300, green olives 2 400 , 10 to 100 mg: meat, fish, oysters, egg yolk, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, small-Swiss, radishes, artichokes, endive salad, endive, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, chard, leek, carrot , grapes, figs, chocolate, cream, brown - 10 mg: lentils, beans, bread without salt, unsalted crackers, flour, semolina, pasta, rice, potatoes, cabbage, asparagus, turnips, green beans, salsify, mushrooms, onion, tomato, cooked salad, endive, lettuce, fresh fruit, almonds, walnuts, canned fruit, sugar, jam, jelly, pepper, nutmeg, paprika, cinnamon, vanilla, coffee, cloves, herbs, garlic , thyme, bay leaf, parsley, tarragon, fennel, basil, water Contrexéville, Vittel, Evian, juice, cider, beer, wine.

A diet without salt can cause decreased libido and decreased cognitive function. A sustained effort can lose more than 7 grams of salt to 3 pm Salt may be prescribed in cases of significant sweating in a hot country. Eating salt makes you thirsty. If salt intake from 10 to 5 g per person per day (quantity close of the recommendations in many countries), consumption of beverages might decrease.


nouv.:, new.

Jan.-Feb.: Mandarins, clementines, walnuts, apples, oranges, cabbage, endive, turnips, leeks, lettuce. Mars oranges young  carrots., Endive, radishes. April and May: strawberries, artichokes, asparagus, young turnips , young carrots., spinach, peas, young potatoes , radishes. June: apricots, cherries, strawberries, artichokes, asparagus, carrots nouv., spinach, green beans, peas, young potatoes., salads. July: apricots, cherries, strawberries, green almonds, raspberries, peaches, plums, melons, artichokes, young carrots, cucumbers, spinach, green beans, peas, young potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes. August: raspberries, currants, peaches, pears, plums, grapes, melons, artichokes, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini, spinach, beans for shelling, green beans, peppers, lettuce, salsify, tomatoes. Sept.: chestnuts, figs, pears, apples, plums, table grapes, as vegetables in August. Oct.: chestnuts, figs, walnuts, pears, apples, table grapes, artichokes, beans for shelling, green beans, potatoes., salsify, tomatoes. Nov.: chestnuts, dates, kiwi fruit, nuts, pears, apples, cabbage, endive, spinach, beans for shelling, turnips nouv. peppers.December: dates, tangerines, clementines, nuts, grapefruit, pears, apples, vegetables like in November

The USI is recommended by WHO. A constant supply of iodine prevents the thyroid disorders; salt fluoridation, tooth decay.

Soy. Steak: fresh tofu (water + 82% soy), peanut oil, rolled oats, natural flavors, salt, yeast extract. Contains vegetable protein. Disadvantages: contains carbohydrates, is richer in fat than beef, can promote cholesterol.

Son. Outer grain: 44% fiber (cellulose). Facilitates bowel movement.

Surimi [flesh (mid), crushed (Surya)]. Ingredients: white fish (cod, place, Alaska pollock, whiting, bream ...), egg white, starch p. T., rapeseed oil, wheat starch, water, salt, paprika (makes the color orange). Scented with natural flavorings or extracts of shellfish (lobster, crab, lobster, shrimp). Rich in protein and low in fat. Steamed before formatting (sticks, bits). May contain glutamate and cause headaches (Chinese restaurant syndrome). Listeriosis risks.

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