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Microbial contamination.   Due to the contamination of livestock, lack of hygiene during the various stages of processing, distribution and consumption of food. Number of cases (2001): 559 homes [6 675 people (including 10% hospitalized, 4 ‰ †)] affected by foodborne illness group (TIAC) including 197 family homes, 340 homes catering. Agents identified (in%): 64 salmonella, staphylococcus 15.8, Clostridium 2,9, histamine 2.9, bacillus 2.9, other 10.3. Tiac Factor (in%): environmental contamination 55, res 1 infected subjects 50, non-regulatory compliance temperatures 49 prepare error 46, delay between preparation and consumption 35.

Campylobacteriosis :  aused by bacterial species of the genus Campylobacter. Incriminated foods: raw poultry or undercooked, raw milk, drinking water. Disorders: abdominal pain, fever, nausea and diarrhea. In 2 to 10% of cases, progresses to reactive arthritis or neurological disorders. Infections caused by E. coli enterohaemorrhagic (causing intestinal bleeding)Escherichla coli 0157: E. coli 0157 produces a powerful Shiga toxin causing hemorrhagic bowel infections cause diarrhea and complications can be fatal or leave serious sequelae (renal, neurological disorders). incriminated foods: beef, Brussels sprouts, lettuce and fruit juices.

Cholera : bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Various foods contaminated water, rice, vegetables, millet porridge, various fish and seafood Symptoms: abdominal pain, vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Pathology encountered in the geographical areas at risk and focus on undernourished populations.

Salmonellosis :  illness caused by salmonella (2 200 strains), mainly S. enteritidis. Contamination in the intestines of livestock, by ovarian poultry, spread by feces, surface water contacts. Causes diarrhea, headache, fever. Prophylaxis: hygiene, cooking over 56 o C for meat, boiled eggs, refrigeration of cooked foods. Number of Cases (2001): 1 726 (enteritidis 993) including 272 hospitalized, 3 †. Identified or suspected Foods: Eggs and derivatives 107, charcuterie 15, dairy 14, poultry 11, meat 5, fish and seafood 3 shells 3, others 3.

Listeriosis :  Listeria monocytogenes: develops at refrigerator temperature, survives freezing destroyed by cooking. Found in soft cheese made from raw milk (brie, camembert cheese ...), sold cheese, cooked meats (rillettes, pates, frozen products ...), raw foods of animal origin (meat , smoked fish, shellfish, surimi ...), raw soybeans. Results in nervous system infections or sepsis. At risk: pregnant women, immunocompromised (transplanted people, suffering from blood disorders, HIV infection, solid cancers, diabetes, alcoholism). Children are less affected .Prophylaxis: cooking animal, remove the cheese rind, wash vegetables and herbs; hygiene. Number of cases: 1980: 1 000: 87: Swiss Vacherin 25 †, 92: 279 including 63 †; 2000: 261;2001: 186 (44 pregnant women, 13 abortions and deaths of newborns).

Botulism :  d due to a toxin produced by an anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum: Heat resistant spores and antibiotic. Toxin occurred after contamination of meat especially pork, sausages, fish, canned inadequately sterilized. Induces digestive disorders, eye, neurological symptoms (paralysis), respiratory and dry mouth. Prophylaxis: inactivation of the toxin by heating (about 10 min at 100 oC), and hygiene.

Chemical contamination.   Causes: pesticide residues, additives to animal feed, veterinary drugs, heavy metal, natural toxins, substances present in packaging materials or food contact during manufacturing. Levels of most toxic substances in food regulated. However, some substances accumulate in the food chain and may in some situations lead to harmful levels. 

 Cadmium : May cause kidney damage in older people. Soluble pesticides and DDT: accumulate in fat (milk) and are stored in adipose tissue because of their high persistence.

DDT and Lead Poisoning  : (Professional and poisoning in children ingest flakes of lead paint in poor housing). Contamination of human dietary: drinking water (maximum lead content: 25 mg / l),plant foods contaminated from soil and atmospheric deposition, and food in contact with lead during the process processing and storage (case of wine and some cans). Affects nearly 8 500 children aged 1 to 6 each year. The removal of lead from certain technological processes, the use of unleaded gasoline have helped reduce the rate of contamination of foodstuffs. Dietary lead max. 25 mg / kg body weight per week. 

Mercury : toxic as methyl mercury. Severe poisoning occurred with contaminated fish (neurological disorders, 43 †, Minamata, Japan, 1956), seeds of wheat and barley treated with methyl mercury (6 000 † in Pakistan, 1971, 300 † in Iraq, 1972). maximum tolerable set in France at 0.5 mg / kg in fish (1 per species), the total dietary intake of methyl mercury should not exceed 1.6 mg / kg body weight per week. Pregnant women and nursing mothers and young children should limit their consumption of tuna to avoid mercury contamination. 

Lead Poisoning  : (Professional and poisoning in children ingest flakes of lead paint in poor housing). Contamination of human dietary: drinking water (maximum lead content: 25 mg / l),plant foods contaminated from soil and atmospheric deposition, and food in contact with lead during the process processing and storage (case of wine and some cans). Affects nearly 8 500 children aged 1 to 6 each year. The removal of lead from certain technological processes, the use of unleaded gasoline have helped reduce the rate of contamination of foodstuffs. Dietary lead max. 25 mg / kg body weight per week. 

Pesticides : food poisoning due to accidental contamination of flour by endrin and parathion. The Ministry of Agriculture registers pesticides and establishes specific conditions of use.Washing, peeling, scraping vegetables eliminate much of the pesticide. 

Dioxins : soluble contaminants from industrial sources (various industries, incinerators) or natural (forest fire), found primarily in animal fats (milk, meat) but can also infect plants by atmospheric deposition. Groups of molecules some of which are carcinogenic. The tolerable daily intake for humans is 3.33 pg TEQ (toxic equivalent) / kg bw / day (WHO). In milk, maximum: 3pg TEQ / g fat.Natural Toxins : Food of animal and plant may be contaminated by chemical toxins produced naturally [eg certain fungi on seeds, fruit and fruit almonds secrete toxic mycotoxins long term (eg aflatoxins are carcinogenic to the liver, Ochratoxin A responsible nephropathy)]. Cyanogenic glycosides are present in legumes (beans of Java) in almonds and stone fruits (apricots, peaches, bitter almonds). Alkaloids such as solanine grow in potatoes badly preserved. Some species of fish and shellfish may be contaminated by toxins produced by marine algae and bacteria. Effects: neurological impairment, paralysis, digestive disorders.

Unconventional Agents : eg prion. The origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow, 1986 in UK) linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans (100 †). Origin:products bovine tissue containing central nervous system.

Trafficked wines : immoderate addition of ferrocyanide (in Austrian wines in 1985: several †), glycerol, sulfuric acid, phosphoric addition of methanol from the distillation of wood fibers or made from derivatives of coal to increase the alcoholic (Italian wine in 1985-86 with several † Italy).

Adulterated oils : rapeseed in Spain (May 1981): 25 000 patients, 600 to 800 †.

Summer 2003: 39 521 controls by the DGCCRF in over 4 600 establishments. Labeling rules: 965 offenses; consumer information on price and terms of sale: 654; hygiene: 453; rules temperature: 379.


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