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A balanced diet should provide daily nutritious principles necessary for life: energy providing substances calories; plastic substances contributing to further building the body.

Carbohydrates (energy) or carbohydrate.  Simple sugars or monosaccharides: consumed as jams, fruit, honey (glucose and fructose) are directly assimilated by the digestive tract without prior processing. Sugars or saccharide compounds (eg sucrose table sugar and lactose in milk) and starches (found in cereals, potatoes and pulses) must be attacked by digestive juices and processed to be assimilated. Carbohydrate "fuel", best suited to working muscles, provide 4 calories per gram. The newborn has an attraction to the sweet taste. Content (in%): 99 Sugar, 87 tapioca, rice flour 79 raisins 77 dates, 74, figs 74, honey 74, wheat flour 74, pasta 73 prunes 73 dried onions 67, oats 67 dried apricots 63, beans 62, lenses 60, white bread 54, wholemeal 48, milk powder 38, canned pineapple 37, bananas 22, p. of t. 21 boiled, 17 grapes, artichokes 17, yoghurt 7, fresh milk 5, calf liver 4 oysters 3.4.

Lipids (mainly energy role).   Contened mainly in fat. Provide energy to muscles in case of prolonged exercise. Constituents of cell membranes and nervous system. In a lower density than water, insoluble in it. Release much heat and are particularly used in the fight against the cold. Provides 9 calories per gram. 2 categories: phospholides and sterols, triglycerides, which play a major role as energy suppliers. The fatty acids are predominant constituents in the chemical composition of triglycerides; there are saturated fats and unsaturated, which have different physiological roles. There are 2 types of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Some animal fats (eg butter) contains vitamins (A and D) and vegetable oils contain vitamin E. Cholesterol (see p. 145 a). content (in%): 100 oil, butter, margarine, 82, mayo 79, bacon 65 bacon 65, dry nuts 58, rillettes 56, Almond 54, meat 33, egg yolk 33 , chips 30 to 40, gruyere 30, milk powder 25, 25 chocolate, macaroons 24, sardines in oil 20, soybean 15, Salmon 13, egg white 10 cookies 10.

Proteins (plastic).  Main elements of living matter. Participate in the development and maintenance of muscle tissue, bone, cartilage. Blood, digestive secretions, antibodies, hormones have a basic protein. Provide 4 calories per gram.Contains amino acids of which 8 are indispensable to man and can not be synthesized by him (tryptophan, leucine, the isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine). The animal protein ( meat, fish, eggs and dairy products) are generally richer and more balanced in essential amino acids than plant proteins. Protein content (in%) of high biological value: 39 Parmesan, 35 dried beef, mutton chop 32 goat cheese 32 quark 32, dry skim milk 37, milk costs 33 livarot 31, flange 28, shrimp 28 sausage 25 tuna 24 deli 23, Fish 20, poultry 20, 19 calf, 19 liver, meat 17 beef, 17 hams, 17 Kidney, 15 pork, egg yolk 16; other: Yeast Diet 46, soybean meal 45, wheat germ 27, lentils dried 25, walnut and almond 21, beans 20, flakes of oats 14, wheat bread 9 (White 7), 7 buttons, pasta 5, p. of t. fried 5.

Content of food substances in energy   (in %).

Meat.  Protein : 20 on average. Lipids : lean meats under de 10 ; fat meat from 20 to 30. Carbohydrates : près de 0. Eau : around 70 (cf. below).

Fish.  Protein : 15 to 25. Lipids : de 1 à 20 (lean fish less than de 5). Carbohydrates : about 0. Water : about 75.

Milk.  Protein : 3. Lipids : 1,5 à 4 (écrémé : 0). Carbohydrates : 5. Water : 85.

Cheese.  Protein : de 10 à 30. Lipids : de 0 à 40. Carbohydrates : about 0. Water : gruyere 35, fresh cheese 70.

Fruits and vegetables.  Protein : 1 à 2. Lipids : tlarge content in oil fruits. Leafy vegetables and fruits, no content. Carbohydrates : leafy vegetables, tomatoes, fresh fruit 10. Some starchy and sweet fruits (bananas, grapes, cherries) 20. Water : 40 to 95.

Bred.  Protein : 8. Carbohydrates : 55. Lipids : about 2. Water : 30 (Toast 5 to 7).

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