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Vitamins.  Word created in 1912. Substances essential to the body in infinitesimal quantities. Fragile, they stand little heat, light, drying and oxidation (especially vitamins group B and C).

1o) Vitamines Water-soluble vitamins . Group B (meat, offal, fish, shellfish, vegetable oils, eggs, milk, cheese, brewer's yeast, legumes, whole grains, sprouted or not) affects the general equilibrium and nervous essential in the use of nutritional principles, B1 (acts on the nervous and muscular systems, facilitates the absorption of carbohydrates, B2 (riboflavin): metabolic action B3 or PP niacin, nicotamide acid) metabolism cellB5 (pantothenic acid): energy metabolism;B6 pyridoxine): protein metabolism; B8 or H (biotin): Protects skin, eyes, nails, hair, B9 (folic acid): antianemic; B12 (cyanocobalamin): antianemic; nervous system, bone marrow.

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid (fresh vegetables, citrus fruits, liver, lettuce, parsley) antiscorbutic, increases resistance to infections and fatigue also has antioxidant action. Proportion of vitamin C r(in milligrams per 100 g) fruit: rose hips (rose hip, is eaten as jam) 500, 60 strawberries, 50 oranges, 40 grapefruit, melons 33 pineapple 17 lawyers 14 apricots, 10 bananas, peaches, watermelons 7, apples, grapes, pears 4 raisins 1.Vegetables: parsley 172, turnip tops 139, Pepper 128, broccoli 110, Brussels sprouts 100, cauliflower 80 Spinach 51 Cabbage 50, lima beans, yellow beets 30. Fish and shellfish: clams or 10 clams, Atlantic salmon 9, cod, crab steamed 2. Meat: Veal Liver 36.

Most vitamins and minerals must be taken in combination, not isolation, excessive doses can create imbalances. To get the most vitamins and minerals plants must eat vegetables within 48 hours after purchase, place the tray in the refrigerator to preserve them from light, air and heat, wash them under the running water without soaking them, limit the amount of water and cooking time, use the cooking water as a base sauce or soup. If possible, eat fruits and vegetables not peeled.

2o)  Fat-soluble vitamins (soluble in fats). A or retinol (egg yolk, carrot, lettuce, spinach, liver, milk, butter, fish oil, etc..) Promotes growth, is essential for vision , fight skin diseases, etc.. Excess: liver; in pregnancy: fetal malformations. Proportion of vitamin A (microgram per 100 g) cheese: 1 100 Cantal, white thin (1 mg%) 37. Fruits: melons 3 400, 2 700 apricots, peaches 1 330 watermelon 590, lawyers 290, orange 200, Banana 190 Grape 100, apple 90 grapefruit 80 pineapple 70 strawberries 60, pears 20. Fats: salted butter 3 000. Vegetables: 11 000 carrots, sweet potatoes 8 800, parsley 8 500, spinach 8 100, turnip tops 7 600, 6 100 yellow beets, broccoli 2 500 tomatoes 900 peas 640, beans 600, Brussels sprouts 550. Nuts and Seeds: 100 cashews, sunflower seeds 50. Eggs: Yellow only 3 400, integer 1 180. Fish and shellfish: crab steamed 2 200, 1 600 swordfish, mackerel 450, Oyster 300 herring 110, or clams clams 100. Dairy Products: Skim milk 200, yoghurt 70, buttermilk 33, whole milk 13. Meat: Veal Liver 22 500.

D or calciferol (whole milk, butter, vegetable oil, egg yolk, fish liver, liver) metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, antirachitic. Is mainly formed in the skin under the action of UV rays. Excess: Nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss. Proportion of vitamin D (IU per 100 g): oils and fats: butter 35. Eggs: Yellow only 100. Fish and shellfish: sardines (raw) 1 150-1 170, mackerel 1 100 herring 315, Atlantic salmon 154-550 (in boxes 220-440), 150 raw shrimp, halibut 44. Dairy products: milk integer 3-4.

E or tocopherol (germ of cereals, oils, nuts, wheat, eggs, etc..) Antioxidant vitamin. Proportion of vitamin E (IU per 100 g): Grains: 1.8 rye, oats 0.36. cereal grains: wheat germ 90, wheat bran 2.2, brown rice 2, barley 0.9. Fruits: bananas 0.45, strawberries 0.3, melon 0.18. Oils and fats: sunflower oil 100, safflower 50, maize 28, Olive 20, soybeans 16; salted butter 2.4. Vegetables: asparagus, spinach 3.7, broccoli 3, parsley 2.7, corn 2.5, Brussels sprouts 1.5, carrots, lettuce 0.8, celery, tomatoes 0.45. Nuts and seeds: 22 almonds, roasted peanuts with skin 10. Eggs: yellow 3,9, integer 1.8. Pain: Full 0.5. Fish and seafood: Atlantic herring 1.6, halibut 0.9, cod 0.33. Milk: Whole 0.09. Meat: veal liver 2, box 1 ham, ground beef 0.9, lean pork 0.7, chicken, white 0.6.

K or phytomenadione or phylloquinone (green vegetables, including cabbage, spinach, liver, fruit, potatoes, etc..) Blood clotting. Also manufactured by intestinal flora. Proportion of vitamin K (in micrograms per 100 g): Cereals: oatmeal 20. Fruits: 8 peaches, raisins 6 bananas 2 oranges 1. Oils and fats: butter, salt 30, corn oil 10. Vegetables: Turnip tops 650, broccoli 200 lettuce 129 cabbage 125 spinach 89 asparagus 60, beans 14 green, 5 tomatoes, potatoes 3. Eggs: over 11. Dairy: whole milk 3 . Meat: Veal Liver 90, Ham (canned) 15, lean pork 11 hamburger 7.

[source : Afssa]. Mg for an adult man : vitamin C : 110 ; B1 : 1,3 ; B2 : 1,6 ; B3 : 14 ; B5 : 5 ; B6 : 1,8 ; B9 : 330 μg ; A : 800 μg ; D : 5 μg ; E : 12.

40 % of americans (french : 10 %) take a vitamin pill every day, 20 % (french : 30 %) from time to time.


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